A Review of the Releasability
of Long-Term Captive Orcas


Bibliography compiled by Ken Balcomb, Summer, 1993
List of releases compiled by Ken Balcomb, Summer, 1993

Asper, E. and L. Cornell, 1988. Live capture statistics for the killer whale (Orcinus orca) 1961-1976 in California, Washington and British Columbia. Aquatic Mammals(5)1.

Bigg, M., 1982. An assessment of killer whale (Orcinus orca) stocks off Vancouver, Island, British Columbia. RepIntWhalCommn (32):655-666.

Claridge, D.E. and K.C. Balcomb, 1993. In search of marine mammals. Bahamas Naturalist, Vol 7(1):11-17.

Cornell, L.H., 1993. Veterinary evaluation of Keiko. Report to Fund for Animals, July 1993.

Davis, Susan (1997) Spectacular Nature, Corporate Culture and the Sea World Experience. University of California Press.

Defran, R.H. & Pryor, K. (1980) The behaviour and training of cetaceans in captivity. In Cetacean Behaviour: mechanisms and function, L.M. Herman (ed) John Wiley: New York.

de Waal, Frans. 1997. Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape. University of California Press.

Dudok Van Heel, W.H., 1986. From the Ocean to the Pool. In: Research on Dolphins (M.M. Bryden & R. Harrison [eds.]), pp. 163-182. Oxford Science Publications.

Ford, John K.B. 1981. The Killer Whales of B.C. Waters. Journal of the Vancouver Aquarium. 5(1):1-32.

Ford, John K.B. 1985. Acoustic Traditions of Killer Whales. Whalewatcher (Journal of the American Cetacean Society) 19(3):3-6.

Ford, J. K. B. 1991. Vocal traditions among resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal waters of British Columbia. Can. J. Zool. 69:1454-1483.

Ford, John K.B., Graeme M. Ellis, and Kenneth C. Balcomb. 1994. Killer Whales: The Natural History and Genealogy of Orcinus orca in British Columbia and Washington State. Vancouver, British Columbia/Seattle, Washington: UBC Press/University of Washington Press.

Goodall, Jane, 1991. Through a Window : My Thirty Years With the Chimpanzees of Gombe. Houghton-Miflin.

Greenwood, A.G., R. J. Harrison and H. W.l Whitting, 1974. Functional and Pathological Aspects of the Skin of Marine Mammals, In: Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals, vol. 2 (R.J. Harrison, ed.)

Griffin, Donald, 1976. The Question of Animal Awareness. Harvard Univ. Press.

Griffin, 1984. Animal Thinking. Harvard Univ. Press p. vii.

Guinet, C., and J. Bouvier. 1995. Development of intentional stranding and hunting techniques in killer whale (Orcinus orca) calves at Crozet Archipelago. Can. J. Zool. 73:27-33.

Heimlich-Boran, J. R., and S. L. Heimlich-Boran. In press. Social learning in cetaceans: hunting, hearing and hierarchies. Symp. Zool. Soc., Lond. 73.

Herman, L.M., Kuczaj, S. A. II, & Holder, M. D. (1993). Responses to Anomalous Gestural Sequences by a Language-Trained Dolphin: Evidence for Processing of Semantic Relations and Syntactic Information. Journal of Experimental Psychology, General, 122, 184-194.

Hoyt, Erich. 1992. The Performing Orca - Why the Show Must Stop. The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Bath, England.

Hoyt, E., 1990. Orca, The Whale Called Killer. Camden House, Ontario, Canada, pp. 1-290.

Johnson, William, 1990. The Rose-Tinted Menagerie. Heretic Books, London.

KOMO-TV, 1996, Seattle WA, Lolita—Spirit in the Water. Fischer Broadcasting Corp.

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Masson, Jeffrey & Susan McCarthy, 1995. When Elephants Weep - the emotional lives of animals. Delacorte Press.

Mercado, E., Murray, S. O., Uyeyama, R. K., Pack, A. A. & Herman, L. M. Memory for recent actions in the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Repetition of arbitrary behaviors using an abstract rule. Animal Learning and Behavior, 26(2), 210-218.

Morrel-Samuels, P. & Herman, L. M. (1993). Cognitive factors affecting comprehension of gesture language signs: A brief comparison of dolphins and humans. In : Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives, H. R. Roitblat, L. M. Herman & P. Nachtigall (Eds), 211-222. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Moss, Cynthia and Sara J. Shettleworth (Eds), 1996. Neuroethological Studies of Cognitive and Perceptual Processes. Westview Press.

Newman, K. and H. Markowitz, 1993. Echolocation by killer whales (Orcinus orca) while in pursuit of live fish. Abstracts of Tenth Bienniel Conference on Marine Mammals, Galveston, TX.

Olesiuk, P.F., M.A. Bigg and G.E. Ellis, 1990. Life history and population dynamics of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington State. Reports of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 12): 209-248.

Rose, Naomi & Richard Farinato, 1995. The Case Against Marine Mammals in Captivity. Humane Society of the United States.

Payne, Katy, 1998. Silent Thunder: In the Presence of Elephants. Simon and Schuster.

Pryor and Norris, 1991. Dolphin Societies: Discoveries and Puzzles. Univ. of Calif. Press.

Savage-Rumbaugh, S., Roger Lewin. Kanzi: The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind. Wiley and Sons, 1996.

Small, R. and D. DeMaster, 1995a. Survival of five species of captive marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science, 11(2):209-226.

Small, R. and D. DeMaster, 1995b. Acclimation to captivity: a quantitative estimate based on survival of bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions. Marine Mammal Science, 11(4):510-519.

Sweeney, J.C. & S.H. Ridgway, 1975. Common Diseases of Small Cetaceans. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 167: 533-540.

Valentry, Duane, 1969. Big Star All at Sea. Sea Frontiers, Vol 15:4, pp. 219-223.

Whitehead, H., M. Dillon, S. Dufault, L. Weilgart, and J. Wright. 1998. Non-geographically based population structure of South Pacific sperm whales: dialects, fluke-markings and genetics. J. Anim. Ecol. 67:253-262.>

  1. Introduction
  2. Survival rates in captivity
  3. Precedents
  4. Disease issues
  5. Foraging ability
  6. Social systems and bonds
  7. Communication
  8. Consciousness and memory
  9. Emotions
  10. Conclusions
  11. Recommendations
  12. Bibliography