A Review of the Releasability
of Long-Term Captive Orcas


Lolita and her only orca friend

    There is no question in my mind that the public interest in whales and dolphins will continue to grow, and there is also no question in my mind that the future lies in freedom, not captivity. Understanding more about these magnificent animals will benefit people as well as whales and dolphins... because these animals have marvelous qualities that we can learn from. But that learning has to take place in an atmosphere of mutual respect, not one of imposed dominance. Watching whales and dolphins performing tricks and swimming in circles in a concrete tank will do nothing to help understanding, or respect.
Dr. Paul Spong.

  1. Introduction
  2. Survival rates in captivity
  3. Precedents
  4. Disease issues
  5. Foraging ability
  6. Social systems and bonds
  7. Communication
  8. Consciousness and memory
  9. Emotions
  10. Conclusions
  11. Recommendations
  12. Bibliography


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