Letter from Howard Garrett, Orca Network, in response to OPALCO's Sept. 24, 2019 resolution in support of keeping the four lower Snake River dams.
October 22, 2019 - ...on behalf of 55 fisheries and natural resource scientists.
"Restoring the lower Snake River by removing its four federal dams will significantly reduce mainstem water temperatures on a long-term basis, and is likely the only action that can do so, substantially lowering the risk of extinction for salmon and steelhead here."
October 15, 2019 - We are writing as scientists and researchers with many decades of collective experience and a deep familiarity with the life history and current status of the Southern Resident Killer Whales.
"Based on the science and the urgency of the current threats confronting the Southern Residents, we urge the Task Force to recommend to Governor Inslee that he take appropriate steps to ... convene a process to recommend steps for lower Snake River dam removal as soon as possible as top priorities for orca protection."
August 27, 2018 - We are writing as salmon scientists with decades of experience and considerable familiarity with the science concerning the protection and restoration of healthy, selfsustaining wild salmon populations in the Columbia and Snake River Basins.
"..the most effective measure we know of to permanently increase the sustained abundance of Chinook salmon from the Snake and Columbia Rivers: removing the four federal dams on the lower Snake River and restoring the ecological health of that river corridor."
October, 2018 - E-mail response to Chad Bartram, Benton County PUD Manger, From Beth Coffey Corps of Engineers, concerning the question “does the Corps have the authority to place the dams into a non-operational status.
“The Corps can place a project in caretaker status when a project is no longer generating the benefits for which it was constructed”
February 10, 2019 - Dear Orca Recovery Task Force and all concerned
For most tax payers and rate payers such an unproductive federal expense would be considered another case of pork barrel politics, or a massive boondoggle. But for residents in the region the influx of federal money to agencies and contractors provides the foundations for regional economies, sustaining local development, governments, schools, libraries, etc. We can't minimize the financial issues created by the prospect of curtailing this federal influx, though other Army Corps projects, dams, hatcheries, and restoration projects will provide commensurate employment in many cases.
Link to Governor Inslee's Executive Directive:
Our challenge is to examine this wider picture of what happens when dam operations and barging cease. Feared economic challenges, not lack of available science or insurmountable disruptions, are the real reason for opposition to dam breaching in Eastern Washington. Funding concrete measures to assist with inevitable transitions, not more studies, is the solution. The question before us is not really whether to breach the four lower Snake River dams. They are decimating endangered salmon and orcas and return insignificant revenues.
The real question is how to close or realign the operations and facilities of the agencies collectively known as the Columbia Basin Federal Caucus, which include the Corps, Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, NOAA Fisheries and other federal and state agencies whose purpose is to maintain the Snake River dams or mitigate for the harm the dams cause to endangered salmon.
Southern Resident Killer Whale Recovery and Task Force
On March 14, 2018 the Governor signed Executive Order 18-02 designating state agencies to take several immediate actions to benefit southern residents, and establishing a Task Force to develop a longer-term action recommendations for orca recovery and future sustainability. The Governor invited members of the Legislature, the Government of Canada, representatives from tribal, federal, local and other state governments, the private sector and the non-profit sector to participate in the Task Force. The Task Force also includes designees from the lead state agencies, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Puget Sound Partnerships, and from multiple other state agencies.
The Task Force is charged with preparing a comprehensive report and recommendations for recovering Southern Residents, with a full draft due by October 1, 2018, and a final report by November 1, 2018. The report should detail actions that will address all of the major threats to Southern Residents, including prey availability, toxic contaminants, and disturbance from noise and vessel traffic. A second report outlining the progress made, lessons learned, and outstanding needs will be completed by October 1, 2019.
OPEN LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR'S ORCA RECOVERY TASK FORCE
Information and evidence about the feasibility of breaching the four lower Snake River dams, in the form of answers to the Orca Task Force Hydro group's questions.
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE - January 6, 2018
22,000+ citizens place a full page ad in Seattle Times informing Gov. Inslee and Sen. Murray that failure to act now to breach the lower Snake River dams will result in extinction of salmon, orcas.
Facts about Lower Snake Dam Removal
Click on the link for news, letters of record, archives, reports, documents, videos, presentations, and how to help.
July 12, 2017
Cathy McMorris Rodgers, U. S. House of Representatives (WA-05)
Jaime Herrera Beutler, U. S. House of Representatives (WA-3)
Dan Newhouse, U.S. House of Representatives (WA-4)
Kurt Schrader, U. S. House of Representatives (OR-05)
Greg Walden, U. S. House of Representatives (OR-2)
You recently sponsored a bill in the U. S. House of Representatives designed to protect the operation of the four lower Snake River (LSR) dams from environmental review and stop implementation of a scientifically-proven means (spill) of aiding threatened and endangered salmon and steelhead. Your statements in the press release addressing this bill, posted on McMorris Rodgers’ website, demonstrate either a lack of knowledge about the LSR dams or an attempt to deceive your constituents, colleagues in Congress and all Americans. Here are facts of which you are hopefully aware.
Those who wish to mislead the public frequently combine the power output of the Columbia River with that of the Snake, purposely failing to acknowledge that the LSR dams contribute little to the Northwest’s power supply. These four dams provide less than 4% of the electricity in the Pacific Northwest power grid and only 6.5% of the Northwest’s hydropower. They produce much of their power when demands for electricity and market price are both low.
PNW wind energy capacity is now three times greater than the combined capacity of all 4 LSR dams. The Pacific Northwest enjoys a surplus of energy, at times requiring wind turbines to be shut down and electricity to be exported at a negative price.
Savings in energy costs related to fish mitigation alone justifies breaching the LSR dams.
Freight transport on the LSR’s four reservoirs has declined by more than 50% over the past 20 years. Barges no longer carry logs, lumber, paper, pulp, or pulse. Even grain volume, which makes up over 90% of all freight, has declined 45% over the same period.
Every barge of grain that leaves the Port of Lewiston carries a taxpayer subsidy of over $20,000 to pay for channel dredging, navigation operations and maintenance. This figure does not include the many millions of dollars spent every few years on major lock rehabilitation. Commercial navigation on the LSR principally provides government-subsidized transportation of a government-subsidized crop.
The LSR dams are run-of-the-river dams that provide no flood control. Lower Granite dam actually creates flood risk to the principal city on the waterway—Lewiston, Idaho. The arrival at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers of over 2 million cubic yards of sediment each year perpetually adds to that flood risk and creates additional future costs to be borne by federal taxpayers. Flood control as justification for maintaining the LSR dams is a false claim.
Only one reservoir in the LSR dam complex — behind Ice Harbor Dam— provides irrigation for between 13-17 land owners/farms on one-third the acreage the Corps of Engineers projected in claiming benefits for the LSR project. Water would still be available if Ice Harbor were breached, but at a higher (non-subsidized) cost. Irrigation as justification for maintaining the LSR dams is a weak argument that applies to a single dam.
Juvenile Fish Migration:
Among the more egregious of the false claims made in the press release addressing the proposed legislation is that of the survival of Snake River juvenile salmon and steelhead through the 8-dam Columbia/Snake River complex. The oft-repeated statement “an average of 97% of young salmon successfully make it past the dams” belies a juvenile fish survival rate through the dams and reservoirs of about 54% for wild Chinook and 45% for wild steelhead. Further losses then occur below Bonneville Dam due to avian predation and delayed mortality caused by the rigors of dam passage. In 2015 the juvenile survival rate Lower Granite to Bonneville for the Snake River’s most endangered fish, Idaho’s sockeye salmon, was 32%. In 2016 this rate declined farther to a mere 12%. The 97% claim is false. Repeating it constitutes political hucksterism.
In 2013, NOAA Fisheries acknowledged that no juvenile fish passage survival improvement had occurred over the previous 13 years—despite the expenditure of over $700 million on just the 4 lower Snake River dams for so-called “fish passage improvements.” Stated NOAA: “Chinook survival through the hydropower system has remained relatively stable since 1999 with the exception of lower estimates in 2001 and 2004.” No significant change has occurred in the past four years. Claiming otherwise is lying.
Adult Salmon Returns:
As with hydropower, LSR dam supporters deceive the public by using data for the combined Columbia/Snake system, purposely ignoring the vast differences in fish numbers in these two rivers. As sponsors of the House Bill in question, you likewise employ this deception in claiming the achievement of “record fish returns.”
Historically, the Snake River produced an estimated half or more of all the anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. However, in 2014 just 14% of the Chinook counted at Bonneville Dam were Snake River fish. For Coho the percentage was 6%, for sockeye it was less than half of one percent. The same pattern held in 2015 at 15%, 3.5%, and 2/10ths of one percent. Claiming that salmon numbers at Bonneville Dam provide meaningful and honest information about fish numbers on the Snake River, let alone about the Snake’s threatened and endangered salmon and steelhead, is beyond the pale.
In 2015, 99% of adult Snake River sockeye died before reaching their spawning grounds. The Idaho Fish and Game Department has predicted 2017 and 2018 will see steelhead returns lower than those in the 1980s, with the Clearwater River’s once famous wild B-run steelhead numbers predicted to be a mere 1000 fish in 2017.
The true measure of successful recovery of threatened and endangered fish species is the smolt-to-adult return (SAR) ratio. Mere survival (non-extinction) of wild fish species requires a minimum 1% SAR, while recovery of Snake River salmon and steelhead requires a 2%-6% SAR. From 1993-2013 the SAR for wild Chinook salmon averaged .89%. The return exceeded the minimum 2% SAR needed for recovery during only 2 of those 20 years. Idaho’s Snake River sockeye are on the brink of extinction. No Snake River threatened and endangered salmon or steelhead species is on a path to recovery.
The claim of “record runs of fish” in a bill designed to maintain the status quo on the lower Snake River is deliberate deception.
The High Cost of Failure
Several other statements you have made about the LSR dams fall beyond this communiqué—for example, your twisted claim that science should govern dam operations rather than politics while you undertake to assure that politics continue to defy science. However, one additional topic must be addressed. While I question your claim that “one-third of our electric bills pay for fish passage,” we do know the cost to taxpayers and ratepayers of supporting mostly failing salmon and steelhead recovery in the Snake and Columbia Rivers has topped $15 billion. As noted above, at least $700 million has been spent just on “system improvements” designed to increase the rate of juvenile fish passage on the four LSR dams. However, overall juvenile fish survival rates have not improved over the past 20 years, smolt-to-adult wild fish returns remain below the level needed to avoid species extinction, and no Snake River threatened and endangered species is on a path to recovery. Three federal judges over a twenty-year period have declared plans for the operation of the federal dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers illegal.
Despite all of this information, you 5 Northwest members of the U. S. House of Representatives, who claim to be fiscal conservatives, have sponsored a bill to continue pouring more taxpayer and ratepayer money into an atrociously expensive, flawed and failed experiment that is destroying two of the Pacific Northwest’s most iconic species —Pacific salmon and Southern Resident Killer Whales— while inflicting economic hardship on small communities from the Pacific Coast to the interior of Idaho.
A boondoggle is defined as “a wasteful or pointless activity that gives the appearance of having value; “ and “a public project of questionable merit that typically involves political patronage and graft.”
The lower Snake River dams meet both definitions. Your referenced House Bill does as well.
Orca Scientists Call for Lower Snake Dam Removal to Help Puget Sound’s Endangered Orcas
Letter links fate of Southern Resident killer whales to recovery of declining salmon populations in Columbia-Snake River basin
November 20, 2007 - SEATTLE, WA - Leading Northwest scientists and orca advocates are urging NOAA Fisheries to consider removal of the four lower Snake River dams in order to protect endangered Puget Sound orca populations that need Columbia-Snake River salmon as a critical food source.
"Restoring Columbia River Chinook salmon is the single most important thing we can do to ensure the future survival of the Southern Resident Community of killer whales," said Dr. Rich Osborne, research associate with The Whale Museum in Friday Harbor, WA. "We cannot hope to restore the killer whale population without also restoring the salmon upon which these whales have depended for thousands of years. Their futures are intricately linked."
The comments from the six prominent orca scientists, delivered in a letter to Northwest members of Congress and NOAA regional administrator Robert Lohn, came in response to the Oct. 31 release of a new draft Biological Opinion from NOAA Fisheries for Columbia-Snake River salmon management. Salmon advocates say the new plan, the result of a court-ordered rewrite of an earlier, illegal 2004 federal salmon plan, fails to do enough to recover imperiled salmon in the seven-state Columbia-Snake river basin, and ignores altogether the four dams on the lower Snake River that do the most harm to these fish.
"History will not be very forgiving of the resource managers who failed in their responsibilities to these icons of the Pacific Northwest, Chinook and orca," said Ken Balcomb, senior scientist with the Center for Whale Research.
"The draft plan relies heavily on actions that science and time have proven will not restore these fish to the levels necessary for self-sustaining populations of salmon, or abundant enough to provide a healthy food resource for these killers whales," said Dr. David Bain, a killer whale biologist at Friday Harbor Labs. "Not only are salmon from the Columbia River an important historic food source, recovered abundant salmon in this river are an indispensable requirement for the future recovery of Southern Residents."
"The new Federal salmon plan for the Columbia and Snake rivers is no better than previous plans in providing access to the basin’s best remaining salmon habitat in the upper reaches of the Snake River," said Howard Garrett, co-founder of the Orca Network. "The resulting declining salmon runs have a very real impact on the 88 endangered southern resident orcas that depend on these fish, as they have for centuries. As the salmon disappear, the orcas go hungry."
"The best science tells us," Garrett added, "that to revitalize Snake River salmon, we'll need to bypass the dams that block fish passage, and that dam removal, combined with a variety of economic investments, will bring benefits to upriver communities in eastern Washington as well as to Puget Sound."
The Columbia and Snake River Basin was once the world’s most productive salmon watershed, with tens of millions of fish returning annually. Today, returns hover near 1% of those historic levels. More than 200 large dams on the basin’s rivers are the major cause of this crisis, with 13 populations now listed under the Endangered Species Act, and four directly impacted by the lower Snake River dams. Yet, the Columbia-Snake Basin still holds more acres of pristine salmon habitat than any watershed in the lower 48 states.
It is this opportunity, notes Kathy Fletcher, executive director of People For Puget Sound, that we must take advantage of, if we hope to protect and restore these two iconic Northwest species whose fates are inexorably intertwined.
"Our leaders must look for solutions not only in Puget Sound, but also in the rivers that bring the salmon to the sea throughout the Northwest," Fletcher said. "The great salmon rivers like the Columbia and Snake can once again produce the healthy runs of Chinook, on which our majestic orcas feed, but only if we recover salmon habitat. We must act quickly to restore clean water, abundant, sustainable salmon populations, and a safe home for orcas. The scientists tell us there is no time to waste."
Full letter: Orca Scientists Call for Lower Snake Dam Removal to Help Puget Sound’s Endangered Orcas
For more information visit:
Southern Resident Killer Whale Chinook Salmon Initiative
Save Our Wild Salmon
Ken Balcomb, Center for Whale Research, (360) 378-5835
Howard Garrett, The Orca Network, (360) 320-7176